# Shift Operator

## GUIDE: Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) - Julius O. Smith III. Shift Operator

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NOTE: THIS DOCUMENT IS OBSOLETE, PLEASE CHECK THE NEW VERSION: "Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), with Audio Applications --- Second Edition", by Julius O. Smith III, W3K Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9745607-4-8. - Copyright © 2017-09-28 by Julius O. Smith III - Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University

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## Shift Operator

Definition: The shift operator is defined by

and denotes the entire shifted signal. Note that since indexing is modulo , the shift is circular. However, we normally use it to represent time delay by samples. We often use the shift operator in conjunction with zero padding(appending zeros to the signal ) in order to avoid the ''wrap-around'' associated with a circular shift.

Figure 8.2 illustrates successive one-sample delays of a periodic signal having first period given by .

Example: (an impulse delayed one sample).

Example: (a circular shift example).

Example: (another circular shift example).

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