Decimation Theorem (Aliasing Theorem)

GUIDE: Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) - Julius O. Smith III. Decimation Theorem (Aliasing Theorem)

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NOTE: THIS DOCUMENT IS OBSOLETE, PLEASE CHECK THE NEW VERSION: "Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), with Audio Applications --- Second Edition", by Julius O. Smith III, W3K Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9745607-4-8. - Copyright © 2017-09-28 by Julius O. Smith III - Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University

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Decimation Theorem (Aliasing Theorem)

Theorem: For all $x\,


Proof: Let $k^\ denote the frequency index in the aliased spectrum, and let $Y(k^\. Then $Y$ is length $M=N/L$, where $L$ is the decimation factor. We have


Since $M/N=L$, the sum over $l$ becomes

using the closed form expression for a geometric series derived earlier. We see that the sum over $L$ effectively samples $x$ every $L$samples. This can be expressed in the previous formula by defining $m\ which ranges only over the nonzero samples:

Since the above derivation also works in reverse, the theorem is proved.

Here is an illustration of the Decimation Theorem in Matlab:

>> N=4;
>> x = 1:N;
>> X = fft(x);
>> x2 = x(1:2:N);
>> fft(x2)                         % FFT(Decimate(x,2))

ans =
 4    -2

>> (X(1:N/2) + X(N/2 + 1:N))/2 % (1/2) Alias(X,2)
ans =
4.0000   -2.0000</pre></p><p>An illustration of aliasing in the frequency domain is shown in

Fig. 8.10.

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