**NOTE: THIS DOCUMENT IS OBSOLETE, PLEASE CHECK THE NEW
VERSION:** "Mathematics of the Discrete
Fourier Transform (DFT), with Audio Applications --- Second
Edition", by Julius
O. Smith III, W3K
Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9745607-4-8. - Copyright ©
*2017-09-28* by Julius O. Smith III -
Center for Computer Research
in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University

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## Sinusoids and Exponentials

This chapter provides an introduction to sinusoids, exponentials, complex sinusoids, , in-phase and quadrature sinusoidal components, theanalytic signal, positive and negative frequencies, constructive anddestructive interference, invariance of sinusoidal frequency in linear time-invariant systems, circular motion as the vector sum of in-phase and quadrature sinusoidal motions, sampled sinusoids, generating sampled sinusoids from powers of , and plot examples using Mathematica.

Subsections