Negative Exponents

GUIDE: Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Negative Exponents

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Negative Exponents

What should $a^{-1}$ be? Multiplying it by $a$ gives

\

Solving $a^{-1} \ for $a^{-1}$ then gives

\

Similarly, we obtain

\

for all integer values of $M$, i.e., $\.

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