**NOTE: THIS DOCUMENT IS OBSOLETE, PLEASE CHECK THE NEW
VERSION:** "Mathematics of the Discrete
Fourier Transform (DFT), with Audio Applications --- Second
Edition", by Julius
O. Smith III, W3K
Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9745607-4-8. - Copyright ©
*2017-09-28* by Julius O. Smith III -
Center for Computer Research
in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University

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## Spectrum Analysis of a Sinusoid: Windowing, Zero-Padding, and the FFT

The examples below give a progression from the most simplistic analysis up to a proper practical treatment. Careful study of these examples will teach you a lot about how spectrum analysis is carried out on real data, and provide opportunities to see the Fourier theorems in action.

Subsections